بحران نظام حل و فصل اختلاف‏ های تجاری بین ‏المللی در فعالیت‏ های فضایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‏الملل، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 استادیار گروه حقوق بین ‏الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

پس از موافقت‏نامۀ ماه مصوب 1979، توسعۀ حقوق بین‏ الملل فضا در جامعۀ بین‏ المللی در حالت سکون قرار گرفت. با گسترش فعالیت ‏های خصوصی فضایی از پایان قرن بیستم، چارچوبی مستحکم جهت حل و فصل اختلاف‏ های فضایی به ضرورتی حیاتی مبدل شد. نویسندگان راه‏ های مختلفی ازجمله حل و فصل جایگزین مشورتی، دیوان حقوق فضا و دیوان چندمنظوره را پیشنهاد داده ‏اند، اما تاکنون هیچ‏کدام قابلیت تحقق نیافته‏ اند. در نظام کنونی حقوق فضا در سطح بین‏ المللی، مشورت سیاسی، کمیسیون دعاوی مندرج در کنوانسیون مسئولیت، دیوان دادگستری بین ‏المللی و قواعد دیوان داوری بین‏ المللی و برخی نهادهای منطقه ‏ای تنها سازکارهای‏ های موجود در حل و فصل اختلاف‏ ها هستند. لیکن با توجه به خصوصی‏ سازی و تجاری‏ سازی فعالیت‏ های فضایی در جهان امروز که از دهۀ نود میلادی آغاز شده است، این مسئله مطرح گردیده که با توجه به تکثر کنشگران فضایی، ازجمله شرکت‏ های تجاری فضایی، روند رسیدگی به اختلاف‏ های فضایی با چه موانعی مواجه است و چگونه می‏ توان بر آنها فائق آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The System of International Commercial Disputes Settlement in the Space Activities: The Barriers Crisis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Amirhamed Talebian 1
  • Seyed Hadi Mahmoudi 2
1 PhD candidate of public international law at Shahidbeheshti University
2 Assistant professor of international law at Shahidbeheshti University
چکیده [English]

After the 1979 Moon Agreement, the development of international space law in international society has been in a stagnant mode. With the progress of private space activities since late 20th century, a stable framework for space disputes settlement was considered a vital exigency. Scholars have proposed ways like alternative consultation resolution, space law tribunal, and multipurpose court; but they have brought about no success until now. In the current space law order in the world, political consulting, claims commission in Liability Convention, International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of Arbitration rules, and also some regional institutes are the only existing disputes settlement mechanisms. Concerning privatization and commercialization of space activities begun since 1990s, the issue is what are the barriers confronting to the proceedings and settlements according to the plurality of space actors like space corporations, and how to overcome the problems? This paper tries to treat the problem and deal with the possible solutions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Commercial arbitration
  • commercialization
  • Investment Arbitration
  • Privatization
  • Space disputes settlement
  1. A) Books
  2. ‎Goh, Gerardine Meishan, (2007). Dispute Settlement in International Space Law (Studies in Space Law), BRILL. ‎
  3. ‎Ian Brownlie, (1998). Principles of Public International Law, Clarendon Press. Oxford. ‎
  4. ‎Jennings R. and Watts A. (eds.), (1992‎). Oppenheim’s International Law Volume I, 9th ed.
  5. ‎Lewis, John and Lewis, Ruth, (1989). Space Resources: Breaking the Bonds of Earth, Columbia University Press. ‎‎‎
  6. ‎Lotta Viikari, (2008). The Environmental Element in Space Law: Assessing the Present and Charting the Future, ‎Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ‎
  7. ‎Van Traa-Engelman, H.L., (1993‎). Commercial Utilization of Outer Space -Law and Practice, Kluwer Academic ‎
  8. FG von der Dunk, (1998). Private Enterprise and Public Interest in the European 'Spacescape': towards harmonized national space legislation for private space activities in Europe , (PhD Thesis).

 

  1. B) Articles
  2. Akehurst, M. (1974). “Custom as a Source of International Law” 47 BYIL.
  3. Bar-Yaacov, N. (1974). “The Handling of Disputes by Means of Inquiry”.
  4. Böckstiegel, Karl-Heinz, (1978). “Arbitration and Adjudication Regarding Activities in Outer Space”, 6 J. Space L. 3.
  5. Böckstiegel, Karl-Heinz, (1993). “Settlement of Disputes Regarding Space Activities”, 21 JSpace L.
  6. Böckstiegel, Karl-Heinz, (2010). “Some reflections on disputes settlement in air, space and telecommunication law”, Contribution to: Liber Amicorum for Ulf Franke
  7. Bostwick, Philip D. (1995). “Going Private with the Judicial System: Making Use of ADR Procedures to Resolve Commercial Space Disputes”, 23 J. Space L.
  8. Bourely, Michel, (1994). “La Creation d'une Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage Aerien et Spatial”, 43 ZLW.
  9. Diederiks-Verschoor, H. Ph. (1998). “The Settlements of Disputes in Space: New Developments”, 26 J. SPACE L.
  10. Fisher, R., (1992). “Coping with Conflict: What Kind of Theory Might Help?”, 167 Notre Dame L.Rev.
  11. Frans G. von der Dunk, (2001). “Space for dispute settlement mechanisms- dispute resolution mechanisms for space? A few legal considerations” , space and telecommunications law program faculty publications, paper 38, Leiden University
  12. Garnault, F. (1994). “A New International Court of Aviation and Space Arbitration”, DYP London Space Ins. Conference 223.
  13. Kim, J. (1993).“United States on 'Emerging Trends in the Commercialization of Space Activities'”, UN Office of Outer Space Affairs, note 48
  14. Kurlekar, Arthad, (2016). “Space – The Final Frontier: Analysing Challenges of Dispute Resolution Relating to Outer Space”, Journal of International Arbitration 33, no. 4.
  15. Lee, Ricky J. (2000). “Reconciling International Space Law with the Commercial Realities of the Twenty-First Century”, 4 Sing. J. Int'l & Comp. L.
  16. Mani, V.S. (2001). “Development of Effective Mechanism(s) for Settlement of Disputes Arising in Relation to Space Commercialization”, 5 Sing. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 191.
  17. March, Scott F., Note, (1983-84). “Dispute Resolution in Space”, 7 HASTINGS INT’L & COMP. L. REV.
  18. Peck, C. and Lee, R.S., (eds.), (1997). “Increasing the Effectiveness of the International Court of Justice” Proceedings of the ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium to Celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Court.
  19. Peteer Malanczuk, (1999). “The Relevance of International Economic Law and the World Trade Organization (WTO) for Commercial Outer Space Activites”, International Organisations and Space Law, Proceedings of the Third ECSL Colloquium, Perugia, Italy, 6-7 May.
  20. Phillip D. Bostwic,. (1995)“Going Private with the Judicial System – Making Creative Use of ADR Procedures to Resolve Commercial Space Disputes”, 23 J. SPACE L
  21. Pocar, Fausto, (2012). “An introduction to the PCA's optional rules for arbitration of disputes relating to outer space activities”, Journal Of Space Law, volume 38.
  22. Twibell, Ty S. (1997). “Space Law: Legal Restraints on Commercialization and Development of Outer Space”, 65 UMKC L. Rev.
  23. Van Traa-Engelman H.L. (1995). “Legal Requirements Constituting a Basic Incentive for Private Enterprise Involvement in the Commercialization of Space Activities”, 38 Proc. on L. Outer Space 3.
  24. Van Traa-Engelman, H.L. (1990). “Settlement of space law disputes”, Leiden Journal of International Law, Volume 3, Issue 3, Special Issue: The United Nations Decade of International Law: Reflections on International Dispute Settlement.
  25. Viikari, Lotta, (2008). “Towards More Effective Settlement of Disputes in the Space Sector, in Dispute Resolution in the Space Sector: Present Status and Future Prospects”, Rovaniemi: Lapland University Press.
  26. Wayne N. White, Jr. (1993). “Resolution of Disputes Arising in Outer Space”,
  27. Published by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Proceedings of Thirty-Fifth Colloquium On The Law Of Outer Space, IISL.
  28. White, Wayne, “The legal regime for private activities in outer space”, http://www.spacefuture.com/
  29. Zach Meyer, (2010). “Private Commercialization of Space in an International Regime: A Proposal for a Space District”, 30 Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business.

 

  1. C) Instruments and Conferences
  2. Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of Disputes, 1907
  3. ITU Plenipotentiary Conference (Kyoto, 1994)‎
  4. Optional Rules for Arbitration of Disputes Relating to Outer Space Activities, Effective December 6, 2011
  5. Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television Broadcasting (DBS Principles), 1982
  6. Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space (RS Principles), 1986
  7. Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space (NPS Principles), 1992
  8. Proceedings of the Workshop on Space Law in the Twenty-First Century, UNISPACE Technical Forum, July 1999
  9. Project 2001 of the Institute of Air and Space Law & Chair of International Business Law of the University of Cologne, Proceedings of the Project 2001- Workshop on Legal Issues of Privatising Space Activities 19 July 1999, Vienna
  10. Report of the 68th Conference of the International Law Association, Taipei, Taiwan, May 1998
  11. The Final Draft of the Revised Convention on the Settlement of Disputes Related to Space Activities, as amended in Report of the Sixty Eighth Conference of the ILA, Taipei, 1998
  12. Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III)

 

  1. D) Web pages
  2. https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/binaries/content/assets/rechtsgeleerdheid/instituut-voor-publiekrecht/lucht--en-ruimterecht/space-resources/hisrgwg_building-blocks-for-space-resource-activities.pdf
  3. https://moonvillageassociation.org/moon-village-principles-mvp-issue-2-draft-public-consultation-opens/