حمایت حقوقی از شخصیت‌های خیالی (کاراکترها) در امریکا؛ رهاوردی برای حقوق ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حقوق خصوصی، دانشکدۀ حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

2 دانشجوی دورۀ دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکدۀ حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

چکیده

استفاده از شخصیت‌های خیالی در تبلیغ و ترویج کالاها و خدمات یکی از قدیمی‌ترین و شناخته‌شده‌ترین شکل‌های تجارت است که سالانه گردش مالی چند میلیون دلاری به‌همراه دارد. شهرت و محبوبیت بیشتر شخصیت‌های خیالی بسیار فراتر از نقش آنها در آثار اصیلی است که برای نخستین بار در آن جلوه‌گر شده‌اند. به‌علاوه، بسیاری از کاراکترها خارج از چارچوب هر نوع اثر خاص خلق می‌شوند و در نتیجه، ممکن است بدون سازوکار و حمایت قانون باقی بمانند. بنابراین، تضمین حمایت منصفانه از خالقان و صاحبان آنها در برابر سودجویی غیرمجاز از خلاقیتشان اهمیت می‌یابد. نوشتار پیش رو در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که آیا می‌توان جایگاهی برای شخصیت‌های خیالی به‌دنبال زیست مستقلانۀ آنها از آثار اولیه در نظام‌های حقوقی ترسیم کرد؟ برای پاسخ به این پرسش تلاش می‌شود از طریق روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با تأسی از حقوق امریکا، ضمن بررسی ظرفیت نظام‌های حقوقی کپی‌رایت وعلائم تجاری در حمایت از کاراکترها، وضعیت حمایت از آنها نیز هنگام ورود به قلمرو مالکیت عمومی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. بدون شک تبیین نحوۀ حمایت از شخصیت‌های خیالی و خالقان آنها و نیز بررسی سایر ابعاد مربوط به این حق، مانند تشخیص معیارهای نقض و سهم حوزۀ عمومی از آنها، علاوه بر اینکه یاریگر رویۀ قضایی خواهد بود، سبب اعتلای فعالیت‌های فرهنگی شده، بر غنای ادبیات حقوقی ایران خواهد افزود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Protection of Fictional Characters in American Law; The object lesson for Iranian Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Salehi Mazandarani 1
  • Amid Mohammadi 2
1 Associate Professor in Private Law, Faculty of Law, Qom University, Qom, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student in Private Law, Faculty of Law, Qom University, Qom, Iran
چکیده [English]

Using fictional characters in the marketing and advertising of goods and services is one of the oldest and the best known form of merchandising with a multi-million dollar annual turnover. The fame and popularity of most fictional characters go far beyond their role in the original works which first featured. In addition, many characters are created outside the context of any particular work and may therefore remain without mechanism and law protection. So, ensuring fair protection to the creators and their owners against unauthorized profit from their creativity is necessary. This paper seeks to answer the question whether it is possible to delineate a position for fictional characters to pursue their independent lives from primary works in legal systems? To answer this question, through a descriptive and analytical approach and by following American law, the authors try to examine the capacity of copyright and trademark systems and the situation which characters enter into the public domain. Undoubtedly, explaining how to protect the fictional characters and their creators, as well as, exploring other aspects of this right, such as identifying infringement criteria and the public domain's contribution to these rights, in addition to assist the jurisprudence, will enhance cultural activities and augment the richness of Iranian legal literature.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Literary Characters
  • Visual Character
  • Copyright
  • Trademark
  • Public domain
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