عنوان مقاله [English]
Agreed Damage provision due to non-performance of a contract is one of the contractual sanction breaches that parties to a contract agree to. At the conclusion of a contract damage caused by violations, measured and calculated in accordance with different criteria, are agreed to on the basis that, if one of the parties violates the obligation they have been in charge of implementing they must pay agreed damages to the other party. In agreed damages provision, due to non-performance of the contract, the main aspect is subordinate to the main contract and extends irrevocable and non-revocable of the main contract to that. Of course, the agreed damages provision, are absolutely binding whether the main contract is revocable or irrevocable and as long as the revocable contract is not terminated, provision contained therein are enforced. Consequently, the implied terms of the original contract remain in force and until the original contract loses its validity.
However, the condition for determining the contractual damages is the nature of the condition of the conditional act and sub-obligation. Although the condition of damages is a subordinate obligation and the condition of the contract, like other commitments and conditions, it is based on principles. Thus, as with the threefold theories of the basis of contractual obligation, the theory of the rule of will, the theory of moral obligation, and the theory of law, the same theories apply to the basis of the condition of damages. Of course, today, none of the three theories alone can be the basis for fulfilling a contractual obligation; Conditions, including the condition of contractual damages, each plays a role in creating their binding force to the degree of its importance. As the importance of the agreement of the will of the parties cannot be completely denied, but its role is not so limited. On the other hand, social needs do not cause the government to ignore the individual and his wishes in all cases, but the government intervenes in guiding and supervising contracts according to needs and will be ineffective if the agreement of the conflicting parties with social interests is reached. In addition, due to the influence of Iranian and Afghan civil law on Islamic jurisprudence, the basis of the obligation of the parties has a valuable face and the basis and principles of the obligation to implement contracts and conditions, including the condition of contractual damages are ethics, verses and traditions.
The condition of determining the contract of damages causes the contractor to enforce the provisions of the condition in case of violation of the contract, and in case of violation of the provisions of the condition of the contract, he can request legal enforcement or termination of the contract from judicial authorities (Afghan law). In fact, the obligation to implement the provisions of the condition and the termination of the contract in the Afghan legal system are intertwined. As the contractor has the right to force or terminate the contract through the official authorities, but in Iranian law, the obligation to implement the provisions of the condition and the termination of the contract are mutually exclusive. In such a way that the conditional can terminate the contract only if it is not possible to implement the provisions of the condition. Otherwise, if conditional coercion is possible, the ground for termination will not be provided. On the other hand, termination is a non-judicial act due to non-implementation of the provisions of the condition in Iranian law, and the probationer can terminate the contract without going to court.