عنوان مقاله [English]
In different legal systems, nominal, punitive and compensatory damages have been identified according to the principles of civil liability. In reviewing the Iranian legal system, it is clear that the most attention has been paid to compensatory damages, i.e. compensation for damages and restoration of the former situation. As such, it has been dealt with reluctantly and limitedly in its acceptance of immaterial damages as a form of punitive damages, and the way and means of determining it has not been anticipated. Whereas one of the most important types of damages resulting from physical injury is immaterial damages, including pain and suffering, which itself can be divided into different branches. In fact, the term suffering is used not only for physical pain but also for a range of intangible injuries such as fear, anxiety, sadness, and disrespect. In American law, the scope of payment for pain and suffering is varied, and most of these cases have been considered but there is no consistency in the assessment method, and It has used various methods such as determining the lump sum, determining the cap or ceiling on the amounts awarded, per diem calculations etc., and in most cases, the severity of the damage is one of the main components and the method of compensation is financially provided. Regarding the acceptance of immaterial damages in Iran legal system, research has been done in this field, but in particular, the damage of pain and suffering has not been addressed. This article examines the US legal system and its calculation methods to obtain and predict the legal tools for removing this gap in the Iran legal system.