عنوان مقاله [English]
Maritime trading transport is the area with the highest volume of cargo handling in the world and it plays a vital role in all aspects of the prosperity of human life. On the other hand, the marine life is associated with the security of two-thirds of the sphere of the world, the environment of seas, which is threatened by the maritime transport. The main question of this paper arises from this duality: the legal system must protect a program which supports maritime trading transport or a process which is called continuing the security of marine life? Maritime trading transport as a program with a background and designed by humans is based on the elements of subject (commodity), tools (ship), bed (sea) and agent (carrier) to move cargo and each has a separate legal system. But the combination of these elements has led to a threat to a process, the natural formation of marine life and its continuation. The optimal legal system is based on criterion about the program and is supportive about the process. Therefore, the present article, which has been reviewed using library and internet references by description and analysis method, seeks through a comparative approach between the Iranian legal system and the legal system of U.S.A, as well as the international legal order to show how a legal system has adopted a lucrative approach toward maritime trading transport and has not differential or special legal system for protection in the face of anti-security threats of marine life, of which pollution is the most prominent. The result of this article is the provision of a supportive legal system with four types of enforcement guarantees: preventive, security, criminal and compensatory so that a balance between the program of maritime trading transport and the process of the marine life can be constituted; especially since geographical location of Iran requires the provision of such a system.
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