بررسی تطبیقی بازپروری مجرمان تروریستی به‌عنوان راهبردی نوین در مبارزه با تروریسم در ایران و سنگاپور

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه شیراز

2 کارشناس ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران شمال

چکیده

امروزه بازپروری به‌عنوان راهبردی قانونی در برخورد با مجرمان در نظام حقوق کیفری بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته و آثار مثبت قابل‌توجهی از خود به‌جای گذاشته است؛ اما پرسش این است که آیا این روش در رویارویی با مرتکبان جرایم مهمی مانند جرایم تروریستی نیز می‌تواند همان نتایج مثبت را از خود به‌جای گذارد؟ ایران به‌عنوان یکی از کشورهای فعال در مبارزه علیه تروریسم راهبردهای مختلفی را در این خصوص به‌کار گرفته و در مقایسه با ایران، سنگاپور با بازپروری مجرمان تروریستی به‌عنوان راهبردی نوین در کنار سایر راهبردهای خود در مبارزات تروریستی، از حملات احتمالی و آسیب‌های ناشی از آن تاکنون جلوگیری کرده است. پژوهش حاضر در قالب یک تحقیق کیفی و با استفاده از شاخص‌های پژوهش تطبیقی بازپروری مجرمان تروریستی را به‌عنوان راهبردی نوین در مبارزات تروریستی بررسی کرده و آن‌ها را با روش‌های مرسوم مبارزه با تروریسم در ایران و سنگاپور مقایسه نموده است. درنهایت یافتۀ حاصل از این پژوهش به این شرح است که با وجود نتایج مثبت بازپروری مجرمان تروریستی در کشور سنگاپور، ایران تاکنون از این روش در مبارزات خود بهره نبرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of Rehabilitation of Terrorist Criminals as a new Counter-Terrorism Strategy in Islamic Republic of Iran and Singapore

نویسندگان [English]

  • Behnam Rastegari 1
  • Zohreh Vakilpour 2
1 Asistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Shiraz University,Iran
2 Master of International Law, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch,Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, rehabilitation is considered as a legal strategy in dealing with criminals in the criminal justice system and it has left significant positive effects; but the question is whether this approach can yield the same positive results in the face of perpetrators of serious crimes, such as terrorist crimes? After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the attitude towards terrorism changed so that the United States used the word war to fight. A word that has brought with it a lot of problems, and brought a new challenge in international law and community. Because the war, according to international definitions, required its own circumstances and could not accommodate this struggle under its umbrella. In practice, terrorism has become to a security crime in the politics and law of countries, and this change in the nature has led to governments to introduce terrorism more than a crime. Terrorist criminals were excluded from the category of criminals, and the fight against terrorism became the primary policy of governments. In a legal analysis, it can be concluded that to convert to a security crime, means make more security for society. This point of view of social defense movement that knows a criminal as a patient, and pay attention to their reform, and in the school of realism that knows a criminal as a victim of physical and social factors offers moral responsibility instead of social responsibility and punishment instead of supply measures, has distanced. And again the classical view, or the idiom "orbit crime", has been taken into consideration. In this case, the perpetrator is a danger to others that has threatened the security of society. For this reason, securityism emphasizes to hard and disproportionate punishments with crime committed to control the danger has been created by the offender. Therefore, the terrorist criminals are the destructive security agents who suffer the most severe punishments because of the nature of their crime and the many incidents that have so far caused human society. Terrorists are people who feel alien at their community, which may be the result of different community situations such as economic, social, political and psychological conditions or a combination of these. As a result, they start protesting and revolt when they feel dissatisfy and alien, but because these revolts cannot quell their outrage, they eventually launch terrorist operations.
The fight against terrorism in the shadow of the military tool has done in many forms to date. But the important point is that in this type of campaign, terrorism may soon be destroyed and its perpetrators eliminated, but the lifetime of this success is short and countries will fail in the long run. Whereas the use of rehabilitation tools on terrorist criminals is a new and useful strategy to counter terrorism that guarantees countries success in the long run, and so far it has been able to provide excellent stability and security in its implementing countries.
Iran has experienced many terrorist incidents throughout its history, and as one of the active countries in the counter-terrorism has used different strategies in this struggle. As compared to Iran, Singapore has used of terrorist rehabilitation as a new strategy alongside other strategies in its counter-terrorism, and it has been able to prevent eventual attacks and the resulting damage so far. The present study, in the form of a qualitative research, and with use comparative research has investigated rehabilitation of terrorist offenders and it compared them to the conventional methods of counter-terrorism in Iran and Singapore. Finally, the findings of this study are as follows; despite the positive results of rehabilitation of terrorist criminals in Singapore, Iran has not used this method so far in its counter-terrorism. Due to the current situation in Iran, the need for this strategy is more evident than in the past.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • terrorism
  • Counter-terrorism
  • new strategy of counter-terrorism
  • rehabilitation
  • terrorist criminals
الف) فارسی

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