عنوان مقاله [English]
Fiscal system of upstream petroleum contracts is a set of tools and elements such as royalties, bonuses, taxes, production sharing and fees that determine how the revenues from petroleum resources are divided between the International Oil Companies (IOCs) and the government. Which fiscal tools and elements to be employed in a petroleum contract depends on numerous considerations. By implementing a descriptive-analytical method of research, this study aims to review the main characteristics of fiscal arrangements in some of the major oil producing countries (including Norway, United Kingdom, Russia, Brazil, Venezuela and Iraq) and represent the effective factors on host governments' tendency in applying different types of fiscal features in their petroleum contracts. Subsequently, the status of the new Iranian Petroleum Contract (IPC) to be analyzed in this respect. So from this point of view and regardless of the type of applied petroleum contracts (i.e. concessions, production sharing contracts and risk service contracts), there are many considerable differences in the nature of fiscal tools applying in petroleum contracts of different countries which reflects the country's economic conditions and degree of its dependence on oil revenues and also supervisory power of government.
Analyzing the petroleum contracts of viewed countries shows that depending on economic situation, macro-fiscal policy and development objectives, oil producing countries have different priorities in their contracts. Countries with economy's dependence on oil resources seek different level of upfront revenue streams. So, they apply some fiscal terms such as considerable amount of royalties and bounces which provide an early form of revenues from the early stages of a petroleum contract. A number of local taxes are also implemented in some oil dependent countries in order to develop their deprived areas. Furthermore, because of poor administration and supervision of government, applying transparent fiscal features with simple calculation basis so that the required payments are easy to determine and audit are more common in these countries in order to mitigate corruption. Thus, fixed-rate royalties, simple separate taxes, low cost limits, per barrel fee and so on, are widely used in their contracts.
On the contrary, the main focus of developed countries with good quality of administration is on maximizing the value of government revenue from petroleum projects in different economic conditions through variety of fairly complex fiscal arrangements such as complex income taxes with a wide variety of tax credits and allowance. All issues relating to environment protection are also clearly defined in the contracts of these countries.
10.کاظمی نجفآبادی، عباس (1393)، آشنایی با قراردادهای نفتی، تهران: انتشارات شهر دانش.
11.کاظمی نجفآبادی، عباس و بابایی، حامد (1396، الف)، قراردادهای اکتشاف و تولید در صنعت نفت و گاز، تهران: انتشارات شهر دانش.
12.کاظمی نجفآبادی، عباس و شیرانی، ساعد (1396، ب)، قراردادهای نفتی بینالمللی، تهران: انتشارات شهر دانش.
13.کهن هوشنژاد، روحاله؛ منظور، داوود؛ امانی، مسعود (1397)، «تحلیل مقایسهای رژیم مالی قراردادهای بیع متقابل و قراردادهای نفتی ایران (IPC)؛ مطالعۀ موردی میدان آزادگان»، فصلنامۀ پژوهشها و سیاستهای اقتصادی، سال بیست و ششم، ش 85.
14.منصوریان، تالین (1393)،«بررسی تطبیقی قراردادهای خدماتی عراق و قراردادهای مشارکت در تولید منطقۀ کردستان»، ماهنامۀ اکتشاف و تولید نفت و گاز، ش 114.
15. Agalliu, Irena (2011), Comparative Assessment of the Federal Oil and Gas Fiscal System, IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates, Massachusetts, US Department of the Interior.
16. Ahmed, Muhammad and ezaei-Gomari, Sina (2018), ''Economic Feasibility Analysis of Shale Gas Extraction from UK’s Carboniferous Bowland-Hodder Shale Unit'', Resources, Vol. 8, No. 5, p.1-17.
17. Ashong, Marcia (2010), Cost Recovery In Production Sharing Contracts: Oportunity For Striking It Rich Or Just Another Risk Not Worth Bearing?, EPMLP Annual Review, University of Dundee.
18. Bishop, Grant and Shah, Anwar (2008), Fiscal Federalism and Petroleum Resources in Iraq, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia.
19. Blake, A. and Roberts, M. (2006), ''Comparing Petroleum Fiscal Regimes Under Oil Price Uncertainty'', Resources Policy, Vol. 31, No. 2, p. 95-105.
20. B. Strong, Christopher (2018), The Oil and Gas Law Review, Law Business Research Ltd., London, Six Edition.
21. Calder, Jack (2014), Administering Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries (Handbook), International Monetary Fund, Publication Services.
22. Cameron, Peter D. and Stanley, Michael C. (2017), Oil, Gas and Mining: A Sourcebook For Understanding The Extractive Industries, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank.
23. Carlos Boué, Juan and Wright, Philip (2010), A Requiem For The UK’s Petroleum Fiscal Regime, UK Energy Policy and the End of Market Fundamentalism, Oxford University Press, p. 39-86.
24. Cottarelli, Carlo (2015), Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries: Design and Implementation, Fiscal Affairs Department, International Monetary Fund.
25. Daniel, Philip, Grote, Martin, Harris, Peter and Shah, Alpa (2015), Fiscal Regimes For Mining And Petroleum: Oportunities And Challenges, International Monetary Fund, Publication Services.
26. Diouf, Awa & Laporte, Bertrand (2017), Oil Contracts and Government Take: Issues For Senegal and Developing Countries, Fondation pour les études et recherches sur le dévelopement in ternational, Working Paper 209.
27. Dongkun, Luo & Na, Yan 2010), ''Assessment of Fiscal Terms of International Petroleum Contracts'', Petroleum Exploration and Development, Vol. 37, No. 6, p. 756-762.
28. E. Smith، Ernest & at al.(2010)، Material on International Petroleum Transaction، Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation.
29. Ernst & Young (EY) Global Limited (2018), Global oil and gas tax guide, available at: https://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/ey-global-oil-and-gas-tax-guide/$FILE/ey-global-oil-and-gas-tax-guide.pdf.
30. Goldsworthy, Brenton and Zakharova, Daria (2010), Evaluation of the Oil Fiscal Regime in Russia and Proposals for Reform, IMF Working Paper, European and Fiscal Affairs Departments.
31. Hogan, Lindsay and Goldsworthy, Brenton (2010), International mineral taxation: Experience and issues, in Philip Daniel, Michael Keen and Charles McPherson (eds), The Taxation of Petroleum and Minerals: Principles, Problems and Practice, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Routledge, p. 122-162.
32. Johnston, Daniel & Johnston, David (2015), Fundamental Petroleum Fiscal Considerations, The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, p. 1-14.
33. Kaiser, Mark J. & Pulsipher, Allan G. (2004), Fiscal System Analysis: Concessionary and Contractual Systems used in Offshore Petroleum Arrangements, Coastal Marine Institute, Louisiana, US Department of the Interior.
34. Karasalihović-Sedlar, Daria, Barbir, Goran & Brkić, Vladislav (2017), ''Types of fiscal Regime in Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production'', The Mining-Geology-Petroleum Engineering Bulletin, p. 45-53.
35. Kellas, Graham ( 2010), Natural gas: Experience and issues, in Philip Daniel, Michael Keen and Charles McPherson (eds), The Taxation of Petroleum and Minerals: Principles, Problems and Practice, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Routledge, p. 163-183
36. KPMG Auditores Independentes (2016), A Guide to Brazilian Oil & Gas Taxation, KPMG International Cooperative.
37. Lund, Diderik (2014), ''State participation and taxation in Norwegian petroleum: Lessons for others?'', Energy Strategy Reviews, p. 1-6.
38. Martins, Jose Roberto (2018), Latin America Oil & Gas Handbook, Baker McKenzie.
39. Mazeel, Muhammed (2010), Petroleum Fiscal Systems and Contracts, Hamburg, Diplomica Verlag.
40. Mehdi, Ahmed (2018), Iraqi Oil: industry evolution and short and medium-term prospects, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, University of Oxford.
41. Meurs, Pedro van (2016), Government Fiscal Strategies under Low Oil Prices and Climate Change, 3rd Government Oil and Gas Summit, London, UK
42. Mommer, Bernard (2001), Fiscal Regimes and Oil Revenues in the UK, Alaska and Venezuela, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, WPM 27.
43. Morse KCB, Amyas (2019), Oil and gas in the UK – offshore decommissioning, Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, HM Revenue & Customs, HM Treasury.
44. Mullins, Peter ( 2010), International tax issues for the resources sector, in Philip Daniel, Michael Keen and Charles McPherson (eds), The Taxation of Petroleum and Minerals: Principles, Problems and Practice, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Routledge, p. 378-402
45. Nakhle, C. (2010), Petroleum Fiscal Regimes: Evolution and Challenges, in Philip Daniel, Michael Keen and Charles McPherson (eds), The Taxation of Petroleum and Minerals: Principles, Problems and Practice, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Routledge, p. 89-121
46. Oil Contracts Restructuring Committee (OCRC) (2014)، New Model: Iranian Petroleum Contract (IPC), Tehran, Iran.
47. Okwesa, Ona (2013), Analysis of the Legal Framework for Investment Promotion and Protection in the Oil and Gas Industry (with Illustrative Study of Regimes Implemented in Venezuela, Nigeria and the United Kingdom), Master Thesis in Oil and Gas Law, Aberdeen university, United Kingdom.
48. Readhead, Alexandra, Mulé, Daniel and Op de Beke, Anton (2018), Government Audits of Oil & Gas Project Costs to Maximize Revenue Collection, Oxfam GB for Oxfam International.
49. Sabitova, Nadia and Shavaleyeva, Chulpan (2015), ''Oil and Gas Revenues of the Russian Federation: Trends and Prospects'', Procedia Economics and Finance, No. 27, p. 423 – 428
50. Samuelsen, Jan (2018), A Guide to Norwegian Petroleum Taxation, KPMG Law Advokatfirma SA.
51. Serova, Dina (2015), Petroleum Fiscal System Design and Cost-Related Incentives in Oil and Gas Projects: A Comparative Study of UK, Norway, Indonesia and China, Master Thesis, Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen.
52. Stevens, Paul (2011), ''Contractual Arrangements and Revenue Management: The UK/Scotland and Norwegian Experience'', Global Governance, Vol. 17, No. 2, p. 149-153.
53. Tordo, Silvana (2007), Fiscal Systems for Hydrocarbons (Design Issues), World Bank Working Paper, No. 123, p. 1-46.
54. Tordo, Silvana, Johnston, David, and Johnston, Daniel (2010), Petroleum Exploration and Production Rights: Allocation Strategies and Design Issues, World Bank Working Paper no. 179.
55. Smith, Ernest E. & et al (2010), Materials on International Petroleum Transactions, Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation.
56. Tsalik, Svetlana and Schiffrin, Anya (2005), Covering Oil: A Reporter's Guide to Energy and Development, Open Society Institute.