عنوان مقاله [English]
The special procedures of the Human Rights Council are independent human rights experts with mandates to report and advice on human rights from a thematic or country-specific perspective to the council or in case of request to the General Assembly of the United Nations. The situation of human rights in Iran has been raised both in Human Rights Commission and its successor Human Rights Council after the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Three rapporteurs i.e. Ahmad Shaheed, Asma Jahangir and Javid Rahman have so far been appointed to report on the situation of human rights in Iran which in result- to date- seven reports have been delivered to the Council and the General Assembly. The main idea in this article is to find an answer-irrespective of the claims made by Iran on the politicized and selective orientation taken by the Council in appointing the rapporteurs- to the questions that what kind of relation is dominant on the reports of the special rapporteurs on the situation of human rights in Iran and whether the human rights framework in Iranian legal system is compatible with the international legal system on human rights or not. As hypothesis of the article, the authors believe that the relation between these two is a challenging one. In some cases –discussed under the title of challenges as to the bases of Iranian legal system- the challenge is so high that in no way any reconciliation between the reports and Iranian legal system is imaginable. In other cases, the challenge is not so critical as that, and is mainly based on misacting or not complying with the Constitution and badly enacted Acts.
1. Challenges as to the bases of Iranian legal system- No Compliance is expected
Two main subjects are discussed under this title i.e. the Religious Minorities not recognized in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran and the Sexual Minorities. Regarding the religious minorities recognition is not possible due to the provisions contained in articles 4, 91 and 13 of the Constitution which limits the bases of granting rights, parliamentary enactments and recognition of religious groups to Islamic rules. However, Iran has insisted in its national reports to UPR on the citizen rights of all religious minorities whether recognized or not in the constitution. This is mainly based on another provision of the constitution i.e. article 23 which explicitly prohibits any investigation into a person’s beliefs.
In respect of sexual minorities, the challenge is even more stricter than the previous one. That’s why in the core human rights Conventions like other Muslim nations Iran puts reservation on the provisions contrary to Islamic rules.
2. Challenges resulted from misacting the provisions of the Constitution- Compliance is expected
Under this title the rights of ethnic minorities are discussed in the reports and Iranian legal system.
The Constitution has gathered all the Iranians under the title of “Nation” and no discrimination is visible in its provisions as to economic, social and cultural rights. But in practice some shortcomings pave the way to criticism. In respect of civil and political rights discrimination is clear-cut and is rooted in the constitution which puts no way to religious minorities to reach some political positions as describes Islam as the main religion and Shite as the main school of thought.
3. Challenges resulted from badly enacted Acts- Compliance is expected
Crimes against National Security and Drug related Crimes are the selected titles in this part. In crimes against national security there is an ambiguity in the Islamic Penal Code. This ambiguity was the result of generality of titles which included political crimes. By passing Political Crimes Act in 2016 it is hoped that the number of convicts to Crimes against National Security would decrease. Most of the death penalties were the result of drug related crimes. Iran has taken three different stages toward these crimes which the last one is more compatible with international standards.