جایگاه حق فرد بر شناسایی شخصیت حقوقی در اسناد بین‌المللی جهانی، منطقه‌ای و اسناد ملی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه تهران، عضو حقوقدان شورای نگهبان

2 استادیار دانشگاه الزهراء (س)

3 دانش‌آموختۀ دکتری حقوق بین الملل عمومی و مدرس دانشگاه

چکیده

افراد انسانی از ابتدای حیات خویش مستحق حقوق بشری هستند؛ حقوقی که هر انسان به لحاظ انسان بودن از آن بهره‌مند می‌شود. در این میان یکی از حقوقی که در اهمیت و برجستگی آن تردیدی وجود ندارد و ازجمله حداقل‌های حقوق بنیادین بشری به‌شمار می‌رود، حق فرد به شناسایی شخصیت حقوقی است که به‌عنوان پیش‌نیازی برای بهره‌مندی از سایر حقوق بشری مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. این حق که در بسیاری از نظام‌های حقوقی همچنان نادیده گرفته شده، ازجمله حقوق ذاتی بشری است که در اسناد بین‌المللی جهانی و منطقه‌ای مهمی به آن عنایت و تصریح شده است. این حق که شناسایی هر فرد انسانی را در مقابل قانون و به‌عبارتی در تمامی عرصه‌های حقوقی به‌عنوان یک شخص مورد حمایت قرار می‌دهد، در برخی اسناد ملی نیز بیان شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Status of the Individual's Right to Recognition of Legal Personality in the Global and Regional International Instruments and National Instruments

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Fazlolah Mousavi 1
  • Maryam Ahmadinejad 2
  • Yaser Aminoroaya 3
1 Professor of Law, University of Tehran, Jurist Member of the Guardian Council , Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran
3 PhD in Public International Law, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Human individuals are entitled to human rights from the beginning of their life. Rights that every human is benefiting  of it , because  he/she is human beings. In the meantime, the individual's right to recognition of juridical personality one of the rights that there is no doubt in importance and prominence and it is considered of the minimums of fundamental human rights. This right is considered as a prerequisite for the enjoyment of other human rights. The mentioned right still neglected in many legal systems and one of the inherent rights of human. The right to recognition of juridical personality is listed in the major global and regional international instruments and some national instruments. This right recognition every one as a person before the law. Therefore, in this paper we explain the status and the concept of right to recognition of the legal personality in some of these documents.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • “The individual's right to recognition of juridical personality”
  • “Human Rights”
  • “Global Instruments”
  • “Universal Declaration of Human Rights”
  • “Regional Instruments”
  • “National Instruments”
الف) فارسی

- کتاب‌ها

  1. صفائی، حسین (1350)، دورۀ مقدماتی حقوق مدنی، ج1، چ3، تهران: انتشارات مدرسۀ عالی حسابداری.
  2. الهویی نظری، حمید (1389)، رویکرد انسانی در آرای دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری، تهران: نشر دادگستر.
  3. صفار، محمدجواد (1390)، شخصیت حقوقی، تهران: انتشارات بهنامی.
- قوانین

  1. قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران مصوب 1358ش.
  2. قانون تجارت ایران مصوب 1311ش.
  3. قانون تشکیلات و اختیارات سازمان حج و اوقاف و امور خیریه مصوب ۱۳۶۳ش.
  4. قانون مدنی ایران مصوب 1307ش.
 

ب) خارجی

- Conventions and Instruments:

  1. African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights(1986), Adopted by the Organization of African Unity in Nairobi 27June 1981, Entered into Force 21October 1986, (ACHPR).
  2. American Convention on Human Rights (1969), Signed at the Inter-American Specialized Conference on Human Rights, San Josi, Costa Rica, 22 November 1969 (ACHR).
  3. European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1953) Council of Europe, Entered into force on 3 September 1953 (ECHR).
  4. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1976), Adopted by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, Entry into force 23 March 1976, (ICCPR). 
  5. Report of the Commission on Human Rights on its eighteen session, (Official Records of  the Economic and Social Council, Thirty-Forth Session, Supplement No.8 (E/3616/Rev. 1)).
  6. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), drafted by the UN Commission on Human Rights in 1947 and 1948, Adopted and proclaimed by United Nations General Assembly in 1948 (UDHR).
  7. United Nations Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969), Signed at Vienna 23 May 1969.(VCLT).
  8. United Nations General Assembly Resolution, A/RES/3/217, 10 December 1948.
- Cases:

  1. Bámaca Velásquez Case (2000), Inter-Am. C.H.R. , (Ser. C), No. 70, Judgment of 25 November 2000.
  2. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), decision in the U.S. Supreme Court.
  3. Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights and Interights v. Arab Republic of Egypt(2011), 323/06, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 16 December 2011.
  4. Gabriel Shumba v. Republic of Zimbabwe (2012) African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights,  Communication 288/2004,  on 02 May 2012.
  5. Kurt v. Turkey (1998), Eur. Ct. H.R. 44, No. 24276/94, Judgment of 25 May 1998.
  6. Musa Saidykhan v. Republic of The Gambia (2010), African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, ECW/CCJ/JUD/08/10, 16 December 2010.
  7. United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran (United States of America v. Iran) (1980), Judgment by International Court of Justice, judgment of 24 May 1980.
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