عنوان مقاله [English]
The belief on the necessity of the implementation of justice in criminal proceeding process is one of the fundamental principles for legal systems, which will be supported by creating public understanding of the proceeding process through the presence of people. In respect of this description, the purpose of public proceeding is for people to attend in proceeding sessions freely and closely observe the proceeding process and also trust the exact implementation of the laws, prosecutor’s impartiality and the existence of real judicial justice. It should be mentioned that visibility of the practices of judges and parties can help to the proceeding quality and also help issue fair verdict in tribunals a lot. In this respect, the purpose of the article is to present a general view by observing the international evolution at international tribunals from the beginning up to now, through mentioning some of the significant cases. So, the general belief obtained through the ad hoc criminal cases studying, shows the evolutionary process of this right for the accused.
1. Bassiouni, M. Cherif with the Collection of Alfred Dezayas, (1994). The Protection of Human Rights in the Administration of Criminal Justice. A Compendium of United Nations Norms and Sandards, Transnational Publishers Inc.
2. Brady, Helen, “Protective and Special Measure for Victims and Witnesses” In Roy s.Lee, Hakan Friman, Silvia A. Fernandez de Gurmendi, Herman Von Hebel and Darryl Robinsson (eds.)(2001). , The International Criminal Court: Elements of Crimes and Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Transnational Publishers Inc.
3. Cremona. C.F, (1988). “the Public Character of Trial and Judgment in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights”, in Protection Human Rights, the European Dimension (studies in honour of Gerard J.Wiarda.