آثار ثبت املاک بر اعتبار اعمال حقوقی؛ با تأکید بر اوصاف و کارکردهای نظام ثبتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی (مؤسسۀ حقوق تطبیقی) دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد گروه حقوق خصوصی دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

تضمین «امنیت معاملات حقوقی» در خصوص املاک و برقراری «نظم حقوقی» در این حوزه یکی از بااهمیت‌ترین مسائل حقوقی هر کشوری است. بی‌توجهی به «استقلال نظام ثبت املاک» از نظام حقوق مدنی در وضع، تفسیر و اصلاح مقررات ثبت املاک و بی‌اعتنایی به «مبانی و کارکردهای» نظام ثبت املاک در بسیاری از کشورها، ازجمله ایران، سبب به‌خطا رفتن دکترین و رویۀ قضایی در ارائۀ راه‌حل‌های حقوقی در این حوزه و تعیین ضمانت اجرای عدم ثبت معاملات املاک شده است. درحالی که ارائۀ هر راه‌حلی در این حوزه باید با توجه به مبانی حمایتی نظام ثبت املاک از «مالک» و «اشخاص ثالث» و کارکردها و اوصاف «اطلاع‌رسانی» و «رفع تعارض» نظام‌های ثبتی باشد. بر همین مبنا، تقسیم‌بندی نظام‌های ثبتی از لحاظ آثار به نظام‌های ثبتی «ایجادی» و «تأییدی» قابل طرح است. این تقسیم‌بندی بیانگر آن است که در هر حال، ثبت در اعتبار عمل حقوقی راجع به املاک مؤثر می‌باشد؛ هرچند میزان این تأثیر بر حسب نوع نظام متفاوت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of land registration on validity of juridical acts (Emphasis on functions of land registration system)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasrin Tabatabai Hesari 1
  • Mohammad Hasan Sadeghi Moghadam 2
1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law & Political Science (Institute of Comparative Law), University of Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Law & Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Guaranty of security of juridical act about lands is an important difficulty in every country. Disregarding the independence of land registration system from the system of civil law –in enactment, interpretation and amendment of the land registration rules- and disregarding bases and functions of land registration system has resulted in some mistakes made by judicial doctrine and precedent in order to propose proper suggestions for solving the problems related to land registration system and to sanction for juridical acts about lands. However, presentation of every solution in this scope must be proper regarding protective bases of owner and third parties and two functional characters of the land registration system including “informing” and “protective” features. On this basis, land registration systems can be divided into constitutive registration system and confirmative one. This classification means land registration in any case, plays a very effective role in credit of judicial act about land although the degree of this effect is different depending on the system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • constitutive and confirmative systems of land registration
  • informing function of registration
  • protective function of registration
  • Registration law
  • sanction of land registration

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