عنوان مقاله [English]
The concept of “Deprivation of Nationality” is the opposite of granting nationality and it refers to unilateral act by state in order to cut the nationality relation as a punishment against the citizen’s offenses and crimes. Although the law of deprivation of nationality is determined within the domestic law of each country, But the legitimacy of deprivation of nationality is conditional on observing International Human Rights Law. International rules have been identified which limits the competence and authority of states and if they don’t observe these rules on deprivation decision, it will consider arbitrary and illegitimate. These rules are including “prohibition of discrimination, prohibition of statelessness, and prohibition of deprivation against procedural standards ''.
In the summer of 2012 first reports emerged of so-called “Foreign Fighters” leaving their residence countries to join ISIS. The International Centre for the Study of Radicalization and Political Violence estimates that some 4,000 foreign fighters from Western Europe have joined ISIL. As the fighters join ISIL, many terrorist attacks took place in Europe. So the European countries including France, Belgium, and UK tried to extend the authorities of deprivation of nationality. Here’s a look at the rules on deprivation of nationality in UK, France and Belgium and the amendments they implemented after terrorist acts, and then the compliance of these rules with the provisions of international human rights will be reviewed.
The basis of nationality law in UK is The British Nationality Act 1981. After the emergence of foreign fighters phenomenon, section 66 of 2014 act amended section 40 of 1981 act which enable home Secretary to deprive person of British nationality whether or not it will render them statelessness where the person acquired nationality as a result of naturalization and conducted in a manner seriously prejudicial to the vital interest of UK. The government response to those jihadists who had only British nationality, due to protection against statelessness, was “Temporary Exclusion Order” that prevents individuals from returning without permit of Secretary of State.
In France, citizenship deprivation is regulated by French Civil Code that sets down the rules for acquisition and loss of nationality. Citizenship deprivation is applicable only to naturalized citizens and citizens who are dual-national. The law of 2014 criminalized the individual perpetration to commit a terrorist act and other crimes related to terrorism. The new article 34 provides that we have an alternative for loss of nationality in cases that individual are single national and depriving them of nationality will render them statelessness, and that is deprivation of “The rights attached to nationality”( which comprises of civic rights) due to prevention of statelessness.
Deprivation of Belgian nationality are regulated by article 8 and 9 of the constitution and by the Belgian Nationality Code ( BNC). Starting in 2012, in a serious of rapid changes the legal framework for deprivation was altered. A first modification was brought with the act of 4 December 2012 that makes it difficult to acquire Belgian nationality and also strengthened the provision on deprivation; a new article 23 made it possible to deprive a person of nationality in case of conviction for terrorist crime and sentenced to at least 5 years imprisonment. The mechanism of deprivation of nationality was extended to new terrorist crimes and there is no time limit about deprivation. Article 23 of BNC contains no provision that any deprivation should not take place if this would render the individual stateless. This would be contrary to article 7(3) of the European nationality law, The 1961 Convention on Reduction of statelessness and article 15 of Universal Declaration on Human Rights, which permit this only where the person acquired nationality by fraud.
Results of this investigation suggest that the three aforementioned countries have implemented significant reforms to expand the powers of deprivation of nationality. However, these countries have taken different paths in their reforms and, therefore, their compliance with the provisions of international law have not been the same. UK and France, while expanding powers of deprivation of nationality, have tried to observe the principle of avoidance of statelessness, and have resorted to other forms of punishment with regard to terrorist convicts with single nationality, unlike Belgium which has made no provision to guarantee the avoidance of statelessness in its reforms.
1. آل کجباف، حسین (1389)، تابعیت در ایران و سایر کشورها، تهران: انتشارات جنگل.
2. ابراهیمی، سید نصرالله (1383)، حقوق بینالملل خصوصی، تهران: انتشارات سمت .
3. مدنی، سید جلال الدین (1384)، حقوق بینالملل خصوصی، تهران: انتشارات جنگل.
4. فرخی، رحمتاله (1394)، «حق بر تابعیت در پرتو ماهیت حقوق بشر و اسناد بینالمللی»، تهران: ناشر تخصصی مقالات کنفرانسها و ژورنالها-سیویلیکا، قابل دسترسی در:
5. فضائلی، مصطفی (1396)، «سلب تابعیت از منظر حقوق اسلام و نظام بینالمللی حقوق بشر» تهران: مطالعات حقوق تطبیقی، دورۀ 8، ش 1.
6. قاسمی، غلامعلی (1397)، «بررسی سلب تابعیت اتباع بحرین در پرتو حقوق بینالملل بشر» تهران: فصلنامۀ مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دورۀ 49، ش 3.
7. دماوندی، فاطمه (1390)، سلب تابعیت در ایران و اسناد بینالمللی، پایاننامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه آزاد، واحد تهران مرکزی.
8. ظفری، علی (1396)، بررسی تطبیقی سلب تابعیت در حقوق ایران با کشورهای حوزۀ خلیج فارس، پایاننامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ علوم انسانی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شاهرود.
9. کارگران بافقی، مجید (1383-1382)، نقد قانون تابعیت ایران با نگاهی به قانون کشورهای امریکا و انگلستان، پایاننامۀ کارشناسی ارشد رشتۀ حقوق بینالملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکز.
10. مقصودی، منصور (1395)، بررسی جایگاه حق تابعیت در نظام حقوقی ایران و تطبیق آن با اسناد بینالمللی حقوق بشر، پایاننامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه آزاد، واحد تهران مرکزی.
11. Bachelor, Carole A (1998), statelessness and the problem of resolving nationality status, International Journal of refugee law,Vol.10,No.1/2, p.156-183, Available at: http://www.mcrg.ac.in/AddReading/2012/carol.pdf
12. Baubock, Rainer et al (2015), Citizenship deprivation: A normative analysis, CEPS Paper in Library and security in Europe, No.82. p.1-38.
13. Van Waas, Laura (2008), Nationality matters: statelessness under international law, School of human rights research series, Volume 29, Available at: www.institutesi.org/Nationality_Matters.pdf
14. Anderson, David (2016), "Citizenship removal resulting in statelessness", p. 1-17, Available at:www.gov./government/uploads/system/uploads/ attachment_data/file/518390/David_Anderson_QC_CITIZENSHIP_REMOVAL
15. Boutin, Berenice and others (2016) "The Foreign Fighter’s Phenomenon in the European Union", International Center for Terrorism- The Hague, p. 1-149.
16. "Citizenship revocation in response to the foreign fighter threat", UIO: Faculty of Law University of Oslo, 2016, p.1-57, Available at: https://www.duo.uio.no
17. Coolsaet, Rik (2016), "Facing the Forth Foreign Fighters Wave: What Drives Europeans to Syria and to Islamic State? Insights from The Belgian Case", Egmont Papers 81: The Royal institute for international relations, pp 1-52, Available at: http://www.egmontinstitute.be
18. Hailbronner, Kay (2017) "Nationality in public international law and European law", Available at: http://www.academia.edu
19. Harvey, Alison (2016) "Deprivation of Nationality: Implications for the Fight Against Statelessness", QIL, Zoom-in 31, p.21-38 ,Available at: http://www.qil-qdi.org
20. Jayaraman, Shiva (2016), "International Terrorism and Statelessness: Revoking the Citizenship of ISIL Foreign Fighters", Chicago Journal of International Law, Volume 17, No.1, and pp: 177-216.
21. Kemp,Patty and Corrigan, Edward C. (2015),"Deprivation of citizenship: A Canada/ United Kingdom comparison", p. 1-5, Available at: www.edcorrigan.ca
22. Khan, Asad Ali (2016) "The Limits of European Union Law: Terrorism, Statelessness and Deprivation of Nationality", p. 1-50, Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com
23. Klepach, Arielle (2017) "What OLC Missed: Answer Al-Aulaqi and the Case for Citizenship Forfeiture", Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 530, Available at: http://jtl.columbia.edu
24. Manson, Matilda (2013) "reduction of statelessness and access to nationality-the need for EU regulation-The showcase of stateless Roma in Slovenia", Graduate thesis, Faculty of Law Lund University, Available at: http://lup.lub.lu.se
25. Mantu, Sandra (2016), "Citizenship Deprivation in France: Between Nation and the Republic" ,available at: http://www.jurist.org
26. Matthew, Dalton and others(2015) "Seven militant’s lead deadly Paris attacks", The Wall Street Journal, Available at: https://www.wsj.com
27. Mickolus, Edward (2016), "Terrorism, 2013-2015: A Worldwide Chronology, McFarland", Available at: https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1476664374
28. Mills, Bobbie (2016) "A Privilege Not a Right: Contemporary Debates on Citizenship Deprivation in Britain and France", Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford, p. 1-30,Available at: https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk
29. Monlar , Tamas (2015), "the prohibition of arbitrary deprivation of nationality under international law and EU law: new perspectives", p. 67-92, Available at: http://real.mtak.hu/29148/
30. Myres S.Mc Dougal et al., "Nationality and human rights: the protection of individuals and external arenas", Faculty Scholarship Series, paper 2654(1974), p. 900-998, Available at: http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/fss_papers/2654
31. Rene de Groot and Wautelet, Patrick (2014), "Trends on nationality law in Europe", Available at: www.anusca.it
32. Rogers Brubaker, William (1990) "Citizenship and nationhood in France and Germany", submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University, p. 134-168.
33. Rustom, Carine and Schoonvaere, Quentin (2012), "Mapping statelessness in Belgium", UNHCR , Available at: http://www.unhcr.org
34.Samson, Thomas (2015) "Top French court backs stripping jihadist of nationality",available at: http://en.rfi.fr/africa/20150123
35. Sparrow, A. (2014) "Islamic State: Call to revoke citizenship of British-born jihadists: Leading MP Wants fighters to be rendered stateless: Carey joins demands to beef up government action" The Guardian, available at: /https://www.theguardian.com
36." Terror Attacks in Europe: A Timeline", Available at: http://www.thehindu.com
37. The Sofan Group (2015) "Foreign Fighters: An Updated Assessment of The Flow of Foreign Fighters into Syria and Iraq", December 2015. Available at: http://soufangroup.com
38. Vinocur, Nicholas(2015) "French court approves stripping nationality of Franco-Moroccan jihadist", January 23, 2015, available at: https://www.reuters.com
39. Wautelet, Patrick (2016)," the law of nationality: comparative and international perspective", University de Liege, Available at: http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/handle/2268/195773
40. Weil, Patrick (2008) "How to be French: Nationality in the Making since 1789 Durham and London", Duke University Press.
41. Wildberger, Steven(2015) "France top court approves stripping nationality of convicted Franco-Moroccan terrorist", available at: http://www.jurist.org
42. European convention on nationality, November 1997. Access date:14/6/2017, Available at: www.refworld.org/pdfid/3ae6b36618.pdf
43.Extracts from the French civil code, Art.25. Access date: 2/4/2017 Available at: http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/content/download/1950/13681/version/3/file/Code_22.pdf
44. France: A Timeline of Terror, Available at: https://news.sky.com
45. Guest editorial (2016) Terrorism and constitutional amendment in France, European constitutional law review, 12, Available at: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1574019616000067 <6/10/2017>
46. Human rights and arbitrary deprivation of nationality, Human rights Council, Resolution 7/10, 2009.
47.Human rights and arbitrary deprivation of nationality: report of secretary general, A/HRC/25/28, 19 December 2013, Available at: www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/.../A-HRC-25-28_en.doc <14/6/2017>
48. In the court of appeal (civil division) on appeal from the special immigration appeals commission, Rolal courts of Justice, Case no: T2/2011/1371, London, 2012, paragraph 1. Available at: https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/.../al-jedda-judgment
49. Kerno, Ivan S (1953) Nationality including statelessness, International Law Commission, memorandum prepared, Document:-A/CN.4/66 Available at: http://legal.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_67.pdf
50. Report of International Law Commission, sixty-sixth session(5 May- 6 June and 7 July- 8 August 2014), General Assembly Official Records, Sixty-ninth session, Supplement No. 10, Chapter IV, p. 33.
51. The 1954 Convention relating to the status of stateless persons: implementation within the European Union member states and recommendation for Harmonization, UNHCR, VOLUME 22:2, 2004.
52. UNHCR, Nationality and statelessness: a handbook for parliamentarians, Presses Centrals de Lausanne, Switzerland, no.11, 2005, Available at: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/Nationality%20and%20Statelessness.pdf <13/9/2017>
53. Universal declaration of human rights, adopted by General Assembly Resolution 217 a (III) of 10 December 1948.
54. UNHCR, Convention on The Reduction of Statelessness(1961), Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/ibelong/wp-content/uploads/1961-Convention-on-the-reduction-of-Statelessness_ENG.pdf
55. Venice Commission opinion on the draft constitutional law on “protection of the nation”, Council de l’Europe: CDI-AD (2016), para 36-37, Available at: www.venice.coe.int<17/7/2017