نسبت‌سنجی وضعیت کودکان دارای معلولیت با مصالح عالیۀ کودک در پرتو قوانین ایران و اسناد بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

کودکان به دلیل عدم اتمام رشد و تکامل در ابعاد مختلف، مستعد آسیب و نیازمند حمایت و دقت نظر بیشتر نسبت به افراد بالغ هستند. در این میان کودک معلول به‌واسطۀ ضعف و نقص نسبتاً پایدار در جسم یا روان زمینۀ آسیب‌پذیری بیشتری را داشته، به همین سبب نیازمند حمایت‌های ویژه است. کنوانسیون حقوق کودک 1989م (CRC)، کنوانسیون حقوق افراد دارای معلولیت 2006م (CRPD) و قانون حمایت از حقوق معلولان 1397ش ازجمله اسناد قانونی مرتبط در حوزۀ حمایت از کودکان معلول در ایران است. سند نخست، سندی تخصصی در زمینۀ حقوق کودک بوده، در مادۀ 23 خود به‌طور ویژه کودک معلول را مورد توجه قرار می‌دهد. سند دوم نیز با اینکه رویکردی عمومی دارد، در مادۀ 7 ذیل عنوان «کودکان دارای معلولیت»، به این گروه از افراد توجه داشته است. قانون 1397ش نیز رویکردی عمومی دارد و بخش جداگانه‌ای برای کودک معلول درنظر نگرفته است. بااین‌حال، مسائل مربوط به کودک را می‌توان تاحدی از طریق تفسیر مواد این قانون حل و فصل کرد. مقالۀ حاضر با بیان پیشینه‌ای از وضعیت قانون‌گذاری در حوزۀ معلولان و تعریف کودک دارای معلولیت، به بررسی سه سند قانونی یادشده پرداخته و با تحلیل آن‌ها مترصد یافتن کیفیت مراعات مصالح عالیۀ کودک به‌عنوان اصلی تعیین‌کننده در تصمیمات مربوط به کودک در ایران است. یافته‌ها حاکی از آن است که رویکرد اتخاذشده درCRC  و CRPD در راستای توانمندسازی کودک معلول می‌باشد؛ درحالی که رویکرد قانون 1397ش رویکردی صرفاً حمایتی است و در موارد بسیار محدودی به توانمندسازی عنایت داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Best Interests of Children with Disabilities in the Light of Iranian Laws and International Instruments

نویسنده [English]

  • Maryam Ghanizadeh Bafghi
Assistant Professor of Law, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
War, poverty, genetic diseases, lack of hygienic, malnutrition, etc. are usually considered as congenital and non-congenital causes of disability. The results are social isolation, discrimination, and violence. A disabled child based on a rather permanent defection in his body or psych is more prone to vulnerability and thus demand special protection and support. In 2018 Iranian legal system ratified the Act of “Protection of Disabled’s Rights (PDR)” in the parliament after its joining to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)”, in 2008. “Convention on the rights of the child1989 (CRC)”, CRPD and the new ratified Act are the main legal documents on disabled people in Iran. Article 3 of the CRC introduced the best interest of the child as a determining factor in the decisions related to the children. All the authorities in this field should consider this principle as a primary consideration. The paper aims to evaluate disabled children's situations in the above mentioned legal documents with the BIC factor. 
 
Discussion
BIC is a flexible concept that can be interpreted in different situations. However, in this paper, the main criteria such as Non-discrimination, respect to privacy and family life, non-violence, right to education are focused. Disabled children experience more discrimination in comparison with their peers based on their special situation. Many live in institutions and orphanages instead of family. They are 3.6 times more likely to be victims of physical violence, and 2.9 times more likely to be victims of sexual violence. Some of the violence applies as a treatment or behavioral improvement via electroshock. Disabled children usually considered as the ones who are not capable of learning. Lack of tutorial instrument is also another problem for their education. Undoubtedly considering disabled child’s BIC need efficient means such as a child’s inherent dignity, individuality, and independence, giving weigh to the child’s views, accessibility, and family empowerment. These strategies seem efficient in BIC’s improvement and thus are analyzed in this paper.   
 
Method
The research method is descriptive and analytic in which the BIC's criteria and the strategies to consider them are explained and then they are analyzed comparatively in three legal documents in the Iranian legal system. 
 
Conclusion
The PDR has not specified disabled children’s rights in a special part while the two other documents have mentioned their situation. PDR has a general and merely protective approach and its regulation is not design for empowerment. CRC and CRPD, on the contrary, have tried to recognize a disabled child as a member of the society by his special capacities and restrictions. This is spotlighted on the education issue. While on the PDR exclusive education is suggested, inclusive education and the child’s appearance in normal schools to live among other peers has emphasized in CRC and CRPD. The two approaches of “Education to the children” and “Education for the children” as supplementary points are ignored in PDR. It seems that the protective approach of PDR and its inattention to disabled child independence, individuality, and the child’s views is against BIC. Moreover, the comparison of the three legal documents shows that CRPD is more attentive to the BIC’s criteria and PDR has the most gaps. This Act is a recent ratified document in Iran and many practical problems are not clarified yet. Hence, its coordinator and monitoring committee’s report will be important and considerable. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability2006
  • Protection of Disabled Act 2018
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989
  • Best Interests of the Child

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