نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی - پژوهشی
استادیار گروه حقوق دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ارومیه
عنوان مقاله [English]
Traditionally, fundamental rights were considered as an instrument for protecting citizens against government, and contract law was considered as a regulating instrument for private relations, without influence of fundamental rights and concepts of public law. This traditional idea has become less significant in recent years and fundamental rights have been influencing private law. So that, courts interfere in contractual relations by referring to fundamental rights. This study investigates theoretical principles of effect of fundamental rights on contractual relations. A descriptive analytical approach is adopted in this study. Results indicate thatfundamental rights have been treated as superior rights based on which other rights are interpreted and exercised. In other words, fundamental rights are inviolable principles, both in private law and public law, and the government is required to support these rights in entire its law system. On the other hand, fundamental rights are considered as instruments to protect the weak party in a contract and realization of social justice. In the Iranian civil law, in accordance with the constitution and fundamental rights guaranteed therein, as well as the rule of law of these rights, private individuals can not violate fundamental rights in their contractual relationships and Article 959 of the Civil Code also permits the implementation of fundamental rights in contractual relationships.