عنوان مقاله [English]
In the context of the plurality of crimes, the question is that how the justice should distinguish between the criminals who have committed a crime for the first time and an offender who has committed several offenses. Based on the proportionally principle the punishment should be different in these two situations. To achieve this goal, the Iranian and the German legal systems have adopted two different paths. This article, by adopting a comparative-analytical method, seeks to systematically explain the legal term of plurality of crimes, and critically evaluates the similarities and disparities of the Iranian and German criminal law. Different practices of punishing the plurality of offenses after the Islamic revolution in Iran and the early reform of the regulations concerning the plurality of crimes in the Islamic Penal Code Iran, adopted in 2013, indicate the importance of this topic. The Iranian and German legal systems differ from each other in differentiation criteria of plurality from recidivism, the concept of unreal plurality of crimes, the separation of crime in real crime plurality and its punishment and the crime plurality of juvenile delinquents. Also in punishment of unreal plurality and recognition of non-independent crimes in the judicial procedures these two systems have similarities with each other. As a result, there are some ambiguities in the relevant legal provisions, regarding crime plurality including legislative or judicial criteria of the most severe punishment. In addition, some issues such as separation criteria of real plurality in the Islamic Penal Code of Iran and interference of penalties in this kind of plurality have no reliable justification.