مطالعۀ تطبیقی حدود تبلیغات تجاری خطاب به کودکان در تلویزیون

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حقوق خصوصی دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد حقوق ارتباطات دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

در دنیای امروز که وسائل ارتباط جمعی گوناگون آن را احاطه کرده‌ است، کودکان روزانه در معرض سیل عظیمی از تبلیغات تجاری مستقیم و غیرمستقیم قرار دارند. ازآنجا که کودکانْ فاقد قدرت تشخیص کافی، تلقین‌پذیر و بر خرید خانواده‌ها تا حد زیادی تأثیرگذارند، تولیدکنندگان کالاها و خدمات در صدد سوء‌استفاده از این ویژگی‌ها برآمده، آن‌ها را مخاطب تبلیغات خود قرار می‌دهند. این امر انتقادات زیادی را در خصوص کمیت و کیفیت این تبلیغات در جوامع مختلف برانگیخته است؛ از‌این‌رو، در بسیاری از کشورها برای حمایت از کودکان در برابر تبلیغات تجاری تلویزیونی، قواعد و مقرراتی وضع شده است. این مقاله با نگاهی تطبیقی، مقررات کشورهای مختلف در این زمینه را بررسی کرده،  نشان می‌دهد در بیشتر کشورها دو دسته قواعد در این خصوص وجود دارد؛ قواعد ناظر بر شکل و کمیت تبلیغات، و قواعد ناظر بر محتوا یا کیفیت تبلیغات. در این مقاله، وضعیت این قواعد در کشورهای توسعه‌یافته و نظام حقوقی ایران مطالعۀ تطبیقی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Study on the Limits of TV Commercial Advertising aimed at Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bagher Ansari 1
  • Manijeh Hashemian 2
1 Associate Professor of law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran,Iran.
2 Master, Graduate Student of Media Law, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran,Iran.
چکیده [English]

Television advertising to children is a sensitive issue because children are easily influenced and like to experiment new things. Children view large amounts of commercial material. Considerable evidence indicates that children have difficulty distinguishing a commercial from the program that they are watching. There are some specific and real harms that advertising can inflict upon children. The proliferation of products, advertising, promotions and media targeted children are of concern to lawmakers, the industry and the public. Many countries sought to restrict advertising for children to reduce the increasing commercial pressure on children. Children's advertising is under attack because it is perceived as “making kids want what they do not need” and this puts pressure on parents to respond to those needs. More recently, advertising is accused of being a factor of children's obesity. This article, comparatively, studies justifications and methods of restricting television advertising to children and classifies the limits to content-based and non-content-based. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Advertising
  • television
  • Children
  • freedom of expression
  • Media
الف) فارسی

  1. اسماعیلی، محسن (1385)، حقوق تبلیغات بازرگانی در ایران و جهان، چ‌1، تهران: نشر شهر.
  2. اسماعیلی، محسن (1390)، پیش‌نویس لایحه قانون تبلیغات بازرگانی، چ1، تهران: پژوهشگاه فرهنگ، هنر و ارتباطات.
  3. انصاری، باقر (1390)، حقوق رسانه، چ1، تهران: سمت.
  4. امینی، مریم و همکاران (1386)، «آگهی‌های بازرگانی کودکانمان را به خوردن چه خوراکی‌هایی تشویق می‌کنند؟»، مجله علوم تغذیه و صنایع غذایی ایران، سال دوم، ش1، ص 49-58.
  5. حجتی، احسان ا... (1392)، قوانین و مقررات تبلیغاتی کشور، تهران: دفتر تبلیغات و اطلاع‌رسانی معاونت امور مطبوعاتی وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی.
  6. معتمدنژاد، کاظم (1388)، حقوق تبلیغات بازرگانی، چ1، تهران: دفتر مطالعات و توسعۀ رسانه‌ها.
  7. مجموعۀ ضوابط تولید آگهی‌های رادیویی و تلویزیونی سال 1389ش، ادارۀ کل بازرگانی سازمان صدا و سیمای جمهوری اسلامی ایران.
  8. آیین‌نامۀ تأ‌سیس و نظارت بر نحوۀ کار و فعالیت کانون‌های آگهی و تبلیغاتی، مصوب 27 اسفند 1358 شورای انقلاب.
  9. قانون تجارت الکترونیک، مصوب 17 دی 1382
  10. قانون حمایت از مصرف‌کننده، مصوب 1388ش مجلس شورای اسلامی.
  11. آیین‌نامۀ مادۀ 7 قانون حمایت از مصرف‌کننده، مصوب 17 مهر 1390.
ب) انگلیسی

Books and Articles:

 

  1. Agosin, Ariela and Oscar Molina (2010) Advertising to children in Chile, Young consumer, Vol.11. pp. 1-5.
  2. Aktekin, Augur and Basak Gurbuz (2012) “child advertising in turkey”, young consumer, Vol.13, pp. 201-205.
  3. Bansal, S.K (2008) Tele-advertising and children, Jaipur, India: Oxford book company.
  4. Gunter, Barrie, Caroline Oates and Mark Blades (2005) Advertising to children in TV: Content, impact and regulation, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  5. Hawkes, Corina (2012) Marketing food to children: the global regulatory environment, Switzerland: World health organization.
  6. Ramsey, William (2006) “Rethinking regulation of advertising aimed at children,” Federal Communications Law Journal, , Vol. 58. pp. 361-392
  7. skrzydlo- tefelska, Eva and Eric Rheims (2007) “advertising to children in Poland”, young consumer, Vol. 8, pp. 219-221.
  8. Vadehra, Sharad, (2010)“Advertising to children in India”, young consumer, Vol11. pp. 153-156.
  9. Valkenburg, Patti.M, “Children’s response to the screen: a media psychological approach”, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2004.
 

Researches and Reports:

  1. Iesmantaite, Juricta, (2008) “Regulation an advertising aimed at children in Europe-Lithuania(The Legal Framework Provided for by Overarching European Rules and the Laws of 26 European Countries) Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory,  pp. 85-91.
  2. Koester, Jennifer V (2002) “advertising to children in the USA”, World Advertising Research Center, pp. 65-71.
  3. Lengyel, Mark (2008) “Regulation on advertising aimed at children in Europe-Hungry(The Legal Framework Provided for by Overarching European Rules and the Laws of 26 European Countries) Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory, pp. 56-59.
  4. Nadeau, Marie-Ève (2011)  “Food advertising directed at children”, Public Health Association of Quebec,
  5. Statham, June, Ann Mooney and Ann phoenix, (2011) “Summary of regulatory frameworks in four selected countries, for the Bailey Review of commercialization and sexualisation of childhood”, childhood wellbeing research center.
  6. Stylianou, Konstantinos (2008) “Regulation an advertising aimed at children in Europe-Greece” (The Legal Framework Provided for by Overarching European Rules and the Laws of 26 European Countries)”  Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory, pp. 72-76.
  7. Wilcox, brian L., and others (2004) “Report of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children”, American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.
Codes of practice:

  1. Advertising Standards Authority (2010) “The UK code for broadcast advertising”.
  2. Advertising Standards Authority of Malaysia (2008) “Malaysian code for advertising practice”.
  3. Advertising Standards Authority of New Zealand (2010) “Code for advertising to children”.
  4. Advertising Standards Authority of Singapore (2008) “Singapore Code of advertising practice
  5. Advertising Standards Canada (2010) “The broadcast code for advertising to children”.
  6. Australian Communications and media Authority (2009) “Children’s Television Standards”.
  7. Broadcasting authority of Ireland (2011) “Children’s Commercial Communications Code”.
  8. Children’s Advertising Review Unit (2009) “Self-regulatory program for children’s advertising”.
  9. European Union (2010) “Audiovisual Media Services Directives
 

References:

  1. Advertising Standards Authority (2010) “The UK code for broadcast advertising”.
  2. Advertising Standards Authority of Malaysia (2008) “Malaysian code for advertising practice”.
  3. Advertising Standards Authority of New Zealand (2010) “Code for advertising to children”.
  4. Advertising Standards Authority of Singapore (2008) “Singapore Code of advertising practice
  5. Advertising Standards Canada (2010) “The broadcast code for advertising to children”.
  6. Agosin, Ariela and Oscar Molina (2010) Advertising to children in Chile, Young consumer, Vol.11. pp.1-5.
  7. Aktekin, Augur and Basak Gurbuz (2012) “child advertising in turkey”, young consumer, Vol.13, pp. 201-205.
  8. Amini, maryam and others (2007), which foods do TV food advertisements entice our children to eat?, Iranian journal of Nutrition Science and Food Technology, Volume 2, number 1. pp. 49-58.
  9. Ansari, Bagher (2011), Media law, Tehran: Samt publication. (In Persian)
  10. Australian Communications and media Authority (2009) “Children’s Television Standards”.
  11. Bansal, S.K (2008) Tele-advertising and children, Jaipur, India: Oxford book company.
  12. Broadcasting authority of Ireland (2011) “Children’s Commercial Communications Code”.
  13. Bylaw for establishment and surveillance on advertising centers 1979, the revolution Council (In Persian)
  14. By-law of article (7) of Consumer Protection Act 2011 (In Persian)
  15. Children’s Advertising Review Unit (2009) “Self-regulatory program for children’s advertising”.
  16. Consumer Protection Act 2009 (In Persian)
  17. Criteria for radio and television advertisement 2010, Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (In Persian)
  18. Electronic Commerce Act 2004 (In Persian)
  19. Esmaeili, Mohsen (2006), Advertising law in Iran and the world, Tehran: Shahr publication. (In Persian)
  20. Esmaeili, Mohsen (2011), the draft of Commercial advertising Act, Tehran: research institute of culture, art and communications. (In Persian)
  21. European Union (2010) “Audiovisual Media Services Directives
  22. Gunter, Barrie, Caroline Oates and Mark Blades (2005) Advertising to children in TV: Content, impact and regulation, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  23. Hawkes, Corina (2012) Marketing food to children: the global regulatory environment, Switzerland: World health organization.
  24. Hojjati, Ehsanollah (2013), Iranian Advertising rules and regulations, Tehran: ministry of culture and Islamic guidance, Press and Information Deputy, Publicity and Information Office. (In Persian)
  25. Iesmantaite, Juricta, (2008) “Regulation an advertising aimed at children in Europe-Lithuania(The Legal Framework Provided for by Overarching European Rules and the Laws of 26 European Countries) Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory,  pp. 85-91.
  26. Koester, Jennifer V (2002) “advertising to children in the USA”, World Advertising Research Center, pp. 65-71.
  27. Lengyel, Mark (2008) “Regulation on advertising aimed at children in Europe-Hungry(The Legal Framework Provided for by Overarching European Rules and the Laws of 26 European Countries) Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory, pp. 56-59.
  28. Motamed Nejad, Kazem (2009), Advertising Law, Tehran: Center for media studies and research. (In Persian)
  29. Nadeau, Marie-Ève (2011)  “Food advertising directed at children”, Public Health Association of Quebec,
  30. Ramsey, William (2006) “Rethinking regulation of advertising aimed at children,” Federal Communications Law Journal, , Vol. 58. pp. 361-392.
  31. skrzydlo- tefelska, Eva and Eric Rheims (2007) “advertising to children in Poland”, young consumer, Vol. 8, pp. 219-221.
  32. Statham, June, Ann Mooney and Ann phoenix, (2011) “Summary of regulatory frameworks in four selected countries, for the Bailey Review of commercialization and sexualisation of childhood”, childhood wellbeing research center.
  33. Stylianou, Konstantinos (2008) “Regulation an advertising aimed at children in Europe-Greece” (The Legal Framework Provided for by Overarching European Rules and the Laws of 26 European Countries)”  Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory, pp. 72-76.
  34. Vadehra, Sharad, (2010)“Advertising to children in India”, young consumer, Vol11. pp. 153-156.
  35. Valkenburg, Patti.M, “Children’s response to the screen: a media psychological approach”, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2004.
  36. Wilcox, brian L., and others (2004) “Report of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children”, American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.