مطالعۀ تطبیقی نبرد فرم‌ها و آثار آن در انعقاد قرارداد

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حقوق دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشگاه تبریز، دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حقوق خصوصی

چکیده

امروزه در قراردادهای بازرگانی، طرفین از طریق فرم‌های استاندارد با یکدیگر ارتباط برقرار می‌کنند. فرم‌های استاندارد طرفین دربردارندۀ موضوع معامله، مبلغ، کمیت و شرایط تحویل کالا است. همچنین فرم‌های استاندارد حاوی برخی شروط معارضی که قبلاً چاپ شده، است. چنین وضعیتی نبرد فرم‌ها نامیده می‌شود. آیا با مبادلۀ فرم‌های متعارض، قرارداد واقع می‌شود؟ اگر چنین باشد، شروط قرارداد کدام‌اند؟ آیا با اجرای قرارداد، عقد تشکیل‌شده محسوب می‌شود؟ اگر چنین است، شروط قرارداد کدام‌‌اند؟ برخی سیستم‌های حقوقی حاوی راه‌حل‌هایی برای نبرد فرم‌ها هستند، اما در صورت نبود هرگونه مقرراتی، اغلب مشکل از طریق رجوع به قواعد عمومی حل می‌شود. نگارندگان مقاله دیدگاه برخی از سیستم‌های حقوقی مهم را بررسی کرده و سپس موضع اسناد بین‌المللی را در این خصوص مطالعه کرده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparative Study of the Battle of the Forms and Its Effects in Contract Formation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Shoarian 1
  • Roya Shirin Beigpour 2
1 Associate Professor, Law Department, Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
2 LL.M. in Privte Law, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Nowadays in commercial contracts, parties communicate with together using standard forms. Both the party's standards forms usually contain a description of the subject-matter, the price, the quantity and the delivery terms. Such a situation is called the Battle of Forms. In such a case some questions are raised. Does the exchange of the conflicting forms create a contract? If so, what are the contract terms Does performance form the contract? If so, what are the contract terms? Some legal systems and international instruments contain solutions for the battle of forms, but in the absence of specific provisions the problem is usually resolved by the general principles on formation of contracts. In this article we examine some important legal systems point of view and then we express the position of international instruments including CISG, UPICC, PECL and DCFR in this regard.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • formation of contract
  • first shot rule
  • last shot rule
  • knock out rule
  • International Instruments
 

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Cases:

27. http://www.unilex.info/case.cfm?id=52

29. http://www.unilex.info/case.cfm?id=911