بررسی اجرای تحریم در سازمان‌های منطقه‌ای با تأکید بر اتحادیۀ اروپا

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

عضو هیئت علمی دانشکدۀ حقوق پردیس فارابی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

تحریم ابزاری است که از طریق آن، کشورها و سازمان‌های بین‌المللی و منطقه‌ای قصد اثرگذاری بر رفتار دولت‌های عضو یا غیرعضو خود را دارند. در خصوص اتخاذ و اعمال تحریم از سوی سازمان ملل متحد نوشتارهای بسیاری وجود دارد که ابعاد موضوع را تبیین و تشریح کرده است. اما در این میان سازمان‌های منطقه‌ای به زمینۀ خاص تحریم توجه اندکی نشان داده‌اند. در این خصوص اعمال تحریم از سوی سازمان‌هایی چون اتحادیۀ افریقا، اکواس، سازمان کشورهای امریکایی و اتحادیۀ اروپا قابل ذکر است. هر کدام از این سازمان‌ها، مبانی مشابه و گاه متفاوتی را برای اعمال تحریم در اسناد مؤسس و عملکرد خود مد نظر قرار می‌دهند. گاهی نیز مشاهده شده است که این سازمان‌ها خود را تابع تصمیمات شورای امنیت سازمان ملل می‌دانند و در راستای اجرای تحریم‌های وضع‌شده از جانب شورا گام برمی‌دارند. نوشتار حاضر در پی بررسی حقوق و رویۀ برخی از مهم‌ترین سازمان‌های منطقه‌ای در اعمال تحریم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Examination of Sanction Adoption and Enforcement by Regional Organizations with an Emphasis on the European Union

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah Abedini
  • Alireza Ebrahimgol
Lecturer in International Law at Farabi College, University of Tehran, Qom,Iran
چکیده [English]

Sanction is an instrument by which States, international and regional organizations intend to affect their members’ and non-members’ behaviors. With respect to the adoption and enforcement of sanctions by the United Nations there are considerable literature which explores the various aspects of the issue. However, the enforcement of sanctions by regional organizations has received little attention in the literature. As to this issue, the practice of the organizations such as the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Inter-American States Organization and the European Union is worthy of elaboration. Each of these organizations have similar, and sometimes different, bases for sanction enforcement in their constitution instruments and practices. It is occasionally seen that these organizations bind themselves to the decisions of the United Nations Security Council and to implement the sanctions of this Council. This paper seeks to examine the law and the practice of some significant regional organizations in applying sanctions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sanction
  • United Nations
  • Regional Organizations
  • African Union
  • European Union
الف) فارسی

  1. کدخدایی، عباس (1380)، ساختار و حقوق اتحادیۀ اروپایی، تهران: میزان.
ب) خارجی

Book:

  1. August Reinisch (2009), Essential Questions in EU Law, Cambridge University Press.
    1. Bethlehem, Daniel (2004), The European Union, in, Vera Gowlland-Debbas (ed.), National Implementation of United Nations Sanctions: A Comparative Study, Martinus Nijhoff.
    2. Boh, Sebastian (1993), Sanctions by the United Nations Security Council and the European Community, EJIL, Vol. 4.
    3. Carisch, Enrico, Sue Eckert and Loraine Martin, High Level Review of UN Sanctions: Background Paper, available at: http://www.hlr-unsanctions.org/20140706_HLR_Background.pdf
      1. Carter, Barry (2011), Economic Sanctions, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law.
      2. Cremona, Marise (2008), Defining Competence in EU External Relations: Lessons from the Treaty Reform Process, in, Alan Dashwood and Marc Maresceau, Law and Practice of EU External Relations: Salient Features of a Changing Landscape, Cambridge University Press.
      3. Damian Chalmers and Adam Tomkins (2007), European Union Law: Text and Materials, Cambridge University Press.
      4. Gibbons, Elizabeth D. (1999), Sanctions in Haiti: Human Rights and Democracy under Assault, Greenwood Publishing Group.
      5. Gowlland-Debbas, Vera (2004), Implementing Sanctions Resolutions in Domestic Law, in, Vera Gowlland-Debbas (ed.), National Implementation of United Nations Sanctions: A Comparative Study, Martinus Nijhoff.
        1. Hakimdavar, Golnoosh (2013), A Strategic Understanding of UN Economic Sanctions, Routledge.
        2. Hellquist, Elin (2014), Regional Organizations and Sanctions Against Members – Explaining the Different Trajectories of the African Union, the League of Arab States, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, KFG Working Paper Series, No. 59, KollegForschergruppe (KFG) “The Transformative Power of Europe“, Freie Universität Berlin, p. 4, available at:

3.      Barnard, Catherine and Steve Peers (eds.) (2014), European Union Law, Oxford University Press.

6.      Boon, Kristen, Sanctions on the Upswing by Regional Bodies in Africa, available at: http://opiniojuris.org/2013/01/16/sanctions-on-the-upswing-by-regional-bodies-in-africa/

7.      Caminos, H. (1999), The Role of American Organization in the Promotion and Protection of Democratic Governance, Recueil des Cour.

10.  Charron, Andrea (2013), Sanctions and Africa: United Nations and Regional Responses, in, Jane Boulden (ed.), Responding to Conflict in Africa: The United Nations and Regional Organizations, 2th edition, Palgrave Macmillan.

11.  Cortright, David, George Lopez (2000), The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s, Lynne Rienner Publishers.

14.  Endulo, Muna (2012), The Prohibition Unconstitutional Change of Government, in, Abdulqawi A. Yusuf, Fatsah Ouguergouz (eds.), The African Union: Legal and Institutional Framework: A Manual on the Pan-African Organization, Matinus Nijhoff.

http://www.academia.edu/1103678/THE_SANCTIONING_SYSTEM_OF_THE_AFRICAN_UNION_PART_SUCCESS_PART_FAILURE

  1. Kaczorowska, Alina (2013), European Union Law, Routledge.
  2. Kuijper, Pieter Jan, Jan Wouters, Frank Hoffmeister, Geert de Baere, and Thomas Ramopoulos (eds.) (2013),The Law of EU External Relations: Cases, Materials, and Commentary on the EU as an International Legal Actor, Oxford University Press.
  3. Magliveras, Konstantinos D. (2011), Revised version of a paper presented at an Expert Roundtable on “The African Union:The First Ten Years” which was organized by the Institute of Security Studies, AddisAbaba, Ethiopia, 11 – 13 October 2011.
    1. Orakhelashvili, Alexander (2011), Collective Security, Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 261-265.
    2. Van Vooren, Bart, Ramses Wessel, Ramses A. Wessel (eds.) (2014), EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Cambridge University Press.

23.  Reinalda, Bob (2009), Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day, Routledge.

25.  Wilson, Gary (2014), The United Nations and Collective Security, Routledge.

 

Article:

  1. Fassbender, B. (1998), “The United Nations Charter as Constitution of the International Community”, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 36, pp. 529-619.
  2. Lauwaars, R.H. (1984), “The Interrelationship between United Nations Law and the Law of Other International Organizations”, Michigan Law Review 82, pp. 1604-1619.
  3. Wessel, Ramses (2009), “The Dynamics of the European Union Legal Order: An Increasingly Coherent Framework of Action and Interpretation”, European Constitutional Law Review 5, pp. 117-142.

28.  Swindells, Felicia (1996), “U.N. Sanctions in Haiti: A Contradiction under Articles 41 and 55 of the U.N. Charter”, Fordham International Law Journal 20, pp. 1880-1960.

29.  Walter, Chiristian (1997), “Security Council Control over Regional Action”, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 1, pp. 129-193.

 

Case law:

  1. Case 294/83 Les Verts v. Parliament, 1986.
    1. Case 314/85 Foto-Frost [1987] ECR 4199.
    2. Case C-2/88 Imm. Zwartfeld and Others [1990] ECR I-3365.
    3. Opinion 1/91 [1991] ECR I-6079.
 

Document:

  1. Basic Principles on the Use of Restrictive Measures (Sanctions), Council of the European Union, 7 June 2004, available at:
  2. Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI), European Union, March 2006, available at: www.coe.int/cahdi
    1. Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union – Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union – Protocols – Annexes – Declarations annexed to the Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference which adopted the Treaty of Lisbon, signed on 13 December 2007 – Tables of equivalences, available at:
    2. Constitutive Act of African Union, 11 July 2000.
    3. Declaration of Santiago on Democracy and Public Trust: A New Commitment to Good Governance for the Americas, available at: http://www.oas.org/xxxiiiga/english/docs/agdoc4224_03rev3.pdf
      1. Declaration on Articles 75 and 215 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
      2. EU restrictive measures factsheet (29 April 2014), available at:
        1. Guidelines on implementation and evaluation of restrictive measures (sanctions)in the framework of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy: New elements, available at:

42.  European External Action Service, Sanctions policy, available at: http://eeas.europa.eu/cfsp/sanctions/index_en.htm

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/135804.pdf

  1. Protocol A/SP1/12/01 on Democracy and Good Governance Supplementary to the Protocorelating to the Mechanism For Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security, available at:
    1. S/RES/1132 (1997).
    2. S/RES/1846 (2008).
    3. Treaty on the European Union.
    4. Yearbook of the United Nations, Vol. 60, United Nations Publications, 2009.

45.  Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council: Supplement 1989-1992, United Nations. Department of Political Affairs, United Nations Publications, 1992.

 

 

References

Kadkhodai, A. (2000), Structure and Law of European Union, Mizan Publications.(in Persian)

  1. August Reinisch (2009), Essential Questions in EU Law, Cambridge University Press.
    1. Bethlehem, Daniel (2004), The European Union, in, Vera Gowlland-Debbas (ed.), National Implementation of United Nations Sanctions: A Comparative Study, Martinus Nijhoff.
    2. Boh, Sebastian (1993), Sanctions by the United Nations Security Council and the European Community, EJIL, Vol. 4.
    3. Carisch, Enrico, Sue Eckert and Loraine Martin, High Level Review of UN Sanctions: Background Paper, available at: http://www.hlr-unsanctions.org/20140706_HLR_Background.pdf
      1. Carter, Barry (2011), Economic Sanctions, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law.
      2. Cremona, Marise (2008), Defining Competence in EU External Relations: Lessons from the Treaty Reform Process, in, Alan Dashwood and Marc Maresceau, Law and Practice of EU External Relations: Salient Features of a Changing Landscape, Cambridge University Press.
      3. Damian Chalmers and Adam Tomkins (2007), European Union Law: Text and Materials, Cambridge University Press.
      4. Gibbons, Elizabeth D. (1999), Sanctions in Haiti: Human Rights and Democracy under Assault, Greenwood Publishing Group.
      5. Gowlland-Debbas, Vera (2004), Implementing Sanctions Resolutions in Domestic Law, in, Vera Gowlland-Debbas (ed.), National Implementation of United Nations Sanctions: A Comparative Study, Martinus Nijhoff.
        1. Hakimdavar, Golnoosh (2013), A Strategic Understanding of UN Economic Sanctions, Routledge.
        2. Hellquist, Elin (2014), Regional Organizations and Sanctions Against Members – Explaining the Different Trajectories of the African Union, the League of Arab States, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, KFG Working Paper Series, No. 59, KollegForschergruppe (KFG) “The Transformative Power of Europe“, Freie Universität Berlin, p. 4, available at:

2.      Barnard, Catherine and Steve Peers (eds.) (2014), European Union Law, Oxford University Press.

5.      Boon, Kristen, Sanctions on the Upswing by Regional Bodies in Africa, available at: http://opiniojuris.org/2013/01/16/sanctions-on-the-upswing-by-regional-bodies-in-africa/

6.      Caminos, H. (1999), The Role of American Organization in the Promotion and Protection of Democratic Governance, Recueil des Cour.

9.      Charron, Andrea (2013), Sanctions and Africa: United Nations and Regional Responses, in, Jane Boulden (ed.), Responding to Conflict in Africa: The United Nations and Regional Organizations, 2th edition, Palgrave Macmillan.

10.  Cortright, David, George Lopez (2000), The Sanctions Decade: Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s, Lynne Rienner Publishers.

13.  Endulo, Muna (2012), The Prohibition Unconstitutional Change of Government, in, Abdulqawi A. Yusuf, Fatsah Ouguergouz (eds.), The African Union: Legal and Institutional Framework: A Manual on the Pan-African Organization, Matinus Nijhoff.

http://www.academia.edu/1103678/THE_SANCTIONING_SYSTEM_OF_THE_AFRICAN_UNION_PART_SUCCESS_PART_FAILURE

  1. Kaczorowska, Alina (2013), European Union Law, Routledge.
  2. Kuijper, Pieter Jan, Jan Wouters, Frank Hoffmeister, Geert de Baere, and Thomas Ramopoulos (eds.) (2013),The Law of EU External Relations: Cases, Materials, and Commentary on the EU as an International Legal Actor, Oxford University Press.
  3. Magliveras, Konstantinos D. (2011), Revised version of a paper presented at an Expert Roundtable on “The African Union:The First Ten Years” which was organized by the Institute of Security Studies, AddisAbaba, Ethiopia, 11 – 13 October 2011.
    1. Orakhelashvili, Alexander (2011), Collective Security, Oxford University Press, 2011, pp. 261-265.
    2. Van Vooren, Bart, Ramses Wessel, Ramses A. Wessel (eds.) (2014), EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Cambridge University Press.

22.  Reinalda, Bob (2009), Routledge History of International Organizations: From 1815 to the Present Day, Routledge.

24.  Wilson, Gary (2014), The United Nations and Collective Security, Routledge.

 

Article:

  1. Fassbender, B. (1998), “The United Nations Charter as Constitution of the International Community”, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 36.
  2. Lauwaars, R.H. (1984), “The Interrelationship between United Nations Law and the Law of Other International Organizations”, Michigan Law Review 82.
  3. Wessel, Ramses (2009), “The Dynamics of the European Union Legal Order: An Increasingly Coherent Framework of Action and Interpretation”, European Constitutional Law Review 5.

27.  Swindells, Felicia (1996), “U.N. Sanctions in Haiti: A Contradiction under Articles 41 and 55 of the U.N. Charter”, Fordham International Law Journal 20.

28.  Walter, Chiristian (1997), “Security Council Control over Regional Action”, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law 1.

 

Case law:

  1. Case 294/83 Les Verts v. Parliament, 1986.
    1. Case 314/85 Foto-Frost [1987] ECR 4199.
    2. Case C-2/88 Imm. Zwartfeld and Others [1990] ECR I-3365.
    3. Opinion 1/91 [1991] ECR I-6079.
 

Document:

  1. Basic Principles on the Use of Restrictive Measures (Sanctions), Council of the European Union, 7 June 2004, available at:
  2. Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI), European Union, March 2006, available at: www.coe.int/cahdi
    1. Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union – Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union – Protocols – Annexes – Declarations annexed to the Final Act of the Intergovernmental Conference which adopted the Treaty of Lisbon, signed on 13 December 2007 – Tables of equivalences, available at:
    2. Constitutive Act of African Union, 11 July 2000.
    3. Declaration of Santiago on Democracy and Public Trust: A New Commitment to Good Governance for the Americas, available at: http://www.oas.org/xxxiiiga/english/docs/agdoc4224_03rev3.pdf
      1. Declaration on Articles 75 and 215 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
      2. EU restrictive measures factsheet (29 April 2014), available at:
        1. Guidelines on implementation and evaluation of restrictive measures (sanctions)in the framework of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy: New elements, available at:

12.  European External Action Service, Sanctions policy, available at: http://eeas.europa.eu/cfsp/sanctions/index_en.htm

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/EN/foraff/135804.pdf

  1. Protocol A/SP1/12/01 on Democracy and Good Governance Supplementary to the Protocorelating to the Mechanism For Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security, available at:
    1. S/RES/1132 (1997).
    2. S/RES/1846 (2008).
    3. Treaty on the European Union.
    4. Yearbook of the United Nations, Vol. 60, United Nations Publications, 2009.

15.  Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council: Supplement 1989-1992, United Nations. Department of Political Affairs, United Nations Publications, 1992.