افشای اطلاعات طبقه‌بندی‌شده از سوی پایگاه ویکی‌لیکس؛ تقابلی نوین میان حق دسترسی به اطلاعات و امنیت ملی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حقوق عمومی دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

افشای اطلاعات طبقه‌بندی‌شدۀ مرتبط با نفع عموم، به یکی از چالش‌های عمدۀ حقوقی در چند سال اخیر تبدیل شده است. در دهه‌های گذشته تقابل میان حق مردم به دریافت اطلاعات و «اصل حاکمیت و رضایت قبلی» در قالب رسانه‌های سنتی (پخش مستقیم ماهواره‌ای) به نفع «اصل جریان آزاد اطلاعات» حل شد و محدودیت امنیت ملی جایگزین تقابل شد. اما امروزه پایگاه ویکی‌لیکس با دسترسی به اطلاعات طبقه‌بندی‌شدۀ دولت‌ها و انتشار آن‌ها، تقابل نوینی از حق دسترسی به اطلاعات دولتی و امنیت ملی دولت‌ها را به نمایش گذاشته است. ازاین‌رو در پژوهش پیش‌روی برآنیم تا ضمن بررسی این تقابل، دربارۀ راه‌های حقوقی تعامل و همزیستی افشای اطلاعات طبقه‌بندی شده و امنیت ملی در قالب حق دسترسی به اطلاعات و اسناد دولتی به کاوش بپردازیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Disclosure of Classified Information by Wikileaks: A new Conflict Between The Right of Access to Information and National Security

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbasali Kadkhodaee 1
  • Hiwa Hajimolla 2
1 Associate Professor of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran,Iran.
2 MA in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran,Iran.
چکیده [English]

Disclosure of classified public interest information has become one of the major legal challenges in recent years. In the past decades the conflict between the right of people to receive information and principle of sovereignty within the framework of traditional media (Direct Broadcast Satellite) resolved in favor of  principle of free flow of information and the said conflict was replaced by the exception of national security. But nowadays, Wikileaks by access to classified information and disseminating them, has shown new conflict between the right of access to information held by the Government and national security. So in this research, besides of analyzing this conflict, we are going to study legal ways of coexistence between Disclosure of classified information and national security within of the right of access to document and information held by the Government.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • right to information
  • National security
  • Wikileaks
  • classified information
  • information concerning human rights violation
الف) فارسی:

  1. انصاری، باقر (1387آزادی اطلاعات، تهران، دادگستر.
2.نمک‌دوست تهرانی، حسن (1383)، آزادی اطلاعات و حق دسترسی: بنیان دمکراسی، مجلس و پژوهش، تهران، ش42، ص 108-63.

ب) خارجی:

  • §         کتاب‌هاو مقاله‌ها
-    Banisar, D., (2007), Silencing Sources: An International Survey of Protections and Threats to Journalists Sources, Privacy International Global Survey Series, 8 November.

-    --------------, (2006), whistleblowing international standards and developments, first conference about corruption and transparency, Mecxico 23-25 March.

-    Barandes, Laura, (2007), A Helping Hand: Addressing New Implications of The Espionage Act on Freedom of The Press, Cardozo Law Review, vol. 29, pp. 371-403.

-    Benkler, Yochai., (2011), A Free Irresponsible Press: Wikileaks and the Battle over the Soul of the Networked Fourth Estate, Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, vol. 46, pp. 311-397.

-    Coliver, Sandra, (1999), Commentary to The Johannesburg Principles on National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information, in:Sandra Coliver, et al., Secrecy and Liberty: National Security, Freedom of Expression and Access to Information, The Hague,Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 12-80.

-    Fenster, Mark, (2012), Disclosure's Effects: WikiLeaks and Transparency, Lowa Law Review, vol. 97, pp. 753-807.

-    Kyle, Lewis., (2012),Wikifreak-out: The Legality of Prior Restraints on WikiLeaks' Publication of Government Documents, Journal of Law & Policy, vol. 38, pp. 417-440.

-    Kitrosser, Heidi, (2012), Free Speech Aboard the Leaky Ship of State: Calibrating First Amendment Protections for Leakers of Classified Information, Journal of National Security Law & Policy, vol. 6:2, pp. 409-446.

-    Kovarovic, Kate, (2011), When the Nation Springs a [Wiki]Leak: The “National Security” Attack on Free Speech, Touro International Law Review, vol. 14,  no. 2, pp. 273-333.

-    Lacey, Heather, (2011), Government Secrets, National Security and Freedom of the Press: The Ability of the United States to Prosecute Julian Assange, Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review, pp. 202-226.

-    McCarthy, Anna, (1998), The International Human Rights and States of Exception, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

-    Naqvi, Yasmin, (2006), The right to the truth in international law: fact or fiction? International Review of RedCross, vol. 88, no. 862, pp. 245-273.

-    Opper, Melissa, (2011), WikiLeaks: Balancing First Amendment Rights with National Security,Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review, vol. 31, no. 239, pp. 237-267.

-    Papandrea, Mary, (2007), Lapdogs, Watchdogs, and Scapegoats: the Press and National Security Information,  Indiana Law Journal, vol. 83, pp. 233-305.

-    -----------------, (2012), Balancing and the Unauthorized Disclosure of National Security Information, Iowa Law Review Bulletin, vol. 97, pp. 94-114.

-    Stone, Geoffrey, (2006), Prosecuting the Press for Publishing Classified Information,  FIU Law Review, vol. 2, pp. 93- 96.

-    Stone, Geoffrey, (2011), WikiLeaks, the Proposed SHIELD Act, and the First Amendment,Journal of National Security Law & Policy, vol. 5, pp. 105-118.

-    Thebes, Molly, (2011), The Prospect of Extraditing Julian Assange, North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, vol. 37, pp. 889-915.

  • §         آرای قضایی
-    European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), (2000), Rotaru v. Romania,Judgment, 4 May.

-    ECtHR., (1991), Observer and Guardian v. United Kingdom, Judgment, 26 November.

-    ECtHR, (2008), Guja v. Moldova, Judgment, 12 February.

-    ECtHR, (1996), Goodwin v. The United Kingdom, judgment, 27 March.

-    ICJ Reports, (2004),  Case Concerning Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

  • اسناد و گزارشها
-    H. R. Committee, (2011), General Comment No. 34, 21 July.

-    H. R. Committee, (1988), General comment, no. 16, 8 April, para. 10.

-    H. R. Committee, (1983), General Comment no. 10, 29 June.

-    UN. H. R. Council., Report of 4 June 2012, A/HRC/20/17.

-    .Council of  Europe, (2007), Fair Trial Issues in Criminal Cases Concerning Espionage or Divulging State Secrets, Resolution, 19 April.

-    Council of Europe, (2000), The Right of Journalists Not To Disclose Their Sources of Information, Recommendation, 8 March.